Thursday, 12 September 2013

RE: {Kantakji Group}. Add '12065' Fwd: خياراتنا الصعبة بين ترجمة العلوم الاقتصادية وترجمة العقول الاقتصادية د.عبدالباري مشعل

The conclusion that we should study economics in English rather Arabic is really sad and scary!!

Japan is facing same challenges and resolved the problem by having dedicated teams of competent translators to provide accurate translation to any useful new book that comes out. I agree we don't have that support from our governments and I agree that creating a new generation of students who master both languages (Arabic & English) would be the first step, but to propose we dump Arabic is absolutely wrong! What is left of us if we don't even want to use our language? 





Date: Thu, 12 Sep 2013 21:07:12 +0300
Subject: Re: {Kantakji Group}. Add '12064' Fwd: خياراتنا الصعبة بين ترجمة العلوم الاقتصادية وترجمة العقول الاقتصادية د.عبدالباري مشعل
From: jimsama0@gmail.com
To: kantakjigroup@googlegroups.com

السلام عليكم:

س: هنالك جامعات عربية تواكب الجامعات الأمريكية لكن لا توجد نتائج مرضية


2013/9/8 Dr. Samer Kantakji <kantakji@gmail.com>
---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Mohanad AL-Dakash <mohanadaldakash@hotmail.com>
Date: 2013/9/8
Subject: خياراتنا الصعبة بين ترجمة العلوم الاقتصادية وترجمة العقول الاقتصادية د.عبدالباري مشعل

خياراتنا الصعبة بين ترجمة العلوم الاقتصادية وترجمة العقول الاقتصادية د.عبدالباري مشعل

http://www.raqaba.co.uk/node/1051/


دعاني أحد الذين اعتادوا ترجمة بعض الكتب الإسلامية من العربية إلى الإنجليزية ذات مرة لمراجعة ترجمته لكتاب عنوانه "الفائدة" من الإنجليزية إلى العربية قبل تسع سنوات تقريباً.
بدأت بقراءة الترجمة فشعرت أنني أفك ألغازا وأحلل كلمات متقاطعة مصطلحات لا تمت بصلة للاقتصاد، فضلا عن تراكيب لغوية سقيمة بسبب تأثرها الكبير باللغة الإنجليزية. فطلبت إليه أن يهتم باستخدام المصطلحات الاقتصادية وأن يهتم بإعادة بنية العبارة. اتصل بي متذمرا وشرح لي بعصبية خبرته الكبيرة في الترجمة حيث ترجمة لكتاب فقه السنة للسيد سابق وغيره من الكتب الدينية، وأنه لا يطلب مني سوى مراجعة ترجمته العتيدة فكانت النتيجة أني أهملت طلبه.

تظهر المكتبة الاقتصادية المتخصصة أن فترة الستينات والسبعينات من القرن الماضي تميزت بحركة ترجمة نشطة وواعية. فقد نقلت إلينا أفضل ما كتب في الاقتصاد والتنمية والفكر الاقتصادي في الغرب. والمطلع على الكتب المترجمة في ذلك الوقت من قبل المصريين وأيضا العراقيين يستمتع بسلاسة العبارة ومتانتها العلمية وجمال بنيتها اللغوية والبلاغية دون أن يدرك أن أصل الكتاب بلغة أخرى.

لقد قام بتلك الترجمات وراجعها أساتذة متخصصون في الاقتصاد وفي الوقت نفسه يتمتعون بسلامة اللغة والنحو والبلاغة. والحقيقة ليس لدي معلومات دقيقة عن البيئة التي ساعدت على هذا النجاح غير أنه من المؤكد أنه ساهم في ذلك الفكر القومي لجمال عبدالناصر الذي دعم رسميا هذه الحركة. وربما شهد العراق نشاط مماثلاً للأسباب نفسها.

لقد تمكن المصريون بلغتهم العربية السليمة أن يضعوا ترجمات علمية مختصرة ومعبرة لكل المصطلحات الاقتصادية. وأصبحت تشكل كتبهم مراجع علمية معتبرة للدراسة المنهجية وغير المنهجية. وأعتقد أن اعتماد الترجمات الناجحة للكتب الاقتصادية الدراسية أولى بكثير من اعتماد كتب عربية، لأن الواقع أثبت أن الكتب العربية المتخصصة في الاقتصاد ما هي إلا ترجمات تقل عن أصولها الإنجليزية في الفصول الدراسية والوسائل التعليمية فما يصل لطلبتنا من علم ومهارات إلا جزء مما يصل لنظرائهم في الجامعات الأمريكية.

في الثمانينات من القرن الماضي ما تلاها تلاشى تدريجيا هذا التميز في المواكبة في نوعية الكتب المترجمة وفي لغة الترجمة، ونشطت الترجمة اللبنانية بالتوازي مع نشاط ترجمة للكتب الدراسية المتخصصة في مجال الاقتصاد في السعودية لكن المطلع على هذه الترجمات يلاحظ أنها تفتقد إلى كثير من العناصر الأساسية في فن الترجمة. وانتشرت في هذه الفترة كتب الأساتذة التي تفتقد إلى الهوية التي يمكن أن يتميز بها الدراسون للاقتصاد حيث يكون الكتاب في أصله عبارة عن كتاب للمدرس قد ترجمه من أحد الكتب الإنجليزية أو نسخه مباشرة عن أحد الكتب العربية المترجمة أصلا ًوألزم به طلبته كمرجع دراسي والزمهم بشرائه أو تصويره وربما اتفق مع مركز التصوير لمقاسمة العائد.

وعلى صعيد آخر انتاب الضعف الدراسة الاقتصادية عندما تولاها العائدون من الدراسة في الجامعات الأمريكية والغربية فهؤلاء غابت عنهم المصطلحات الاقتصادية المستقرة التي تحدثنا عنها وأصبحوا يدخلون ترجمات جديدة لا ترقى إلى صفة المصطلح لكثير من المصطلحات الاقتصادية فأحدث ذلك فجوة بين الدراسين للاقتصاد على أيد الأساتذة المصريين الكبار والمراجع العلمية المترجمة ترجمة متميزة وبين الدارسين الجدد ولا أتوقع أن تميزا قد حدث بناء على هذا لصالح الدارسين الجدد لأن الطبخة في الحال الثانية قد تدخل فيها طباخون كثر ولم تكن وفق رؤية منهجية متكاملة.

لقد حصل هؤلاء الأساتذة على دراسة منهجية جيدة في بلاد الابتعاث لكنهم لن يستطيعوا بمفردهم نقل تلك المنهجية الدراسية بشكل متكامل لجامعاتنا. لا بد أن يكون ذلك في مطبخ واحد على مستوى الجامعة أو الجامعات في الدولة. بل إن ممارساتهم الفردية قد أحدثت ازدواجية في المنهجية في جامعاتنا العربية.

أرى أن جامعاتنا في حاجة ماسة لمراجعة الكتب الدراسية المقررة في أقسام الاقتصاد وأمامنا خياران في هذا الاتجاه:
الأول: اعتماد منهجية دراسية متكاملة تتطابق مع منهجية الدراسة في الجامعات الأمريكية المتخصصة، واعتماد ذات الكتب بترجمات عربية متقدمة من حيث سلامة المصطلحات واللغة وصياغة العبارة وهو عمل كبير ولا يمكن القيام به إلا من خلال فرق عمل كبيرة ورعاية حكومية وجامعية عليا. وتخدمنا في هذا سلسلة ملخصات شوم الدراسية بنسبة كبيرة التي تتمتع بسلامة الترجمة في كل مجالات الدراسة المنهجية المتخصصة. وبالتالي نستغني عن كثير من التعب والعناء والتشتت الذي يواجهه المدرسون والطلبة في كليات الاقتصاد.

الثاني: اعتماد الكتب الدراسية كما هي في الجامعات الأمريكية المتخصصة بلغتها الإنجليزية، ودراستها باللغة نفسها، وهذا يريحنا من عناء الترجمة وضرورة مواكبة المستجدات. وهذا سيساعد على ترجمة العقل الاقتصادي ليحفظ المصطلحات والمعاني والمرامي بلغتها الأم.

إنني أفضل دراسة الاقتصاد بلغته الأم أو عن كتاب مترجم ترجمة شاملة لشروط السلامة من حيث المصطلحات واللغة والصياغة مع ضرورة وضع المصطلح الإنجليزي والعربي مع بعضهما بصفة مستمرة ولا أعبأ وألا ألتفت لعشرات الكتب المؤلفة في الكتب الدراسية الاقتصادية باللغة العربية؛ بل أرى أن البعد عنها من فضائل الأعمال. وكما يقول المثل: "اسأل مجرِّب ولا تسأل خبير".

أتمنى من كليات الاقتصاد في العالم العربي أن تقوم بعمل توأمة مع جامعات أمريكية أو أوربية كحل دائم لتطوير دراسة الاقتصاد في بلادنا العربية. وهو أقصر الطرق لضمان أرضية سليمة منهجياً لخدمة الاقتصاد الإسلامي.

إن الذين أتحفونا بعطائهم في مجال الاقتصاد الإسلامي كلهم من دراسي الاقتصاد في الغرب، والذين شوهوا الاقتصاد الإسلامي بكتاباتهم الفارغة كلهم من خريجي الاقتصاد في جامعات عربية. أما أنا وأمثالي من طلبة الاقتصاد الإسلامي فمن همومنا أن نتلمس الطريق بين هؤلاء وهؤلاء لخدمة الاقتصاد الإسلامي بشكل أفضل.



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Re: [PF:172571] Find, Sort And Delete Large Size Emails And Attachments In Gmail, Yahoo And Outlook

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Re: [PF:172570] The Definition of Hadith and its Types

On 9/12/13, Erphan 3dhi <erphanedhi@gmail.com> wrote:
> The Definition of Hadith and its Types
>
>
> In the nomenclature of the majority of the Hadith specialists, a Hadith
> means:
>
> *It is the reported speech of the Messenger of Allah, whether this is: (a)
> explicit (sarih) or (b) implicit (hukmi). It is also the action of the
> Messenger of Allah, also split into the two categories, and also what
> someone did or said in front of the Messenger of Allah, but the Messenger
> of Allah did not condemn that action or what was said, but, in fact
> remained silent and established it through his action. This is also split
> into two categories, as mentioned above.
> *
> *Sarih* means that a companion of the Messenger of Allah clearly states
> that, "I heard the Messenger of Allah state that…" / "I saw the Messenger
> of Allah doing…" / "such and such a person or a person did such and such a
> thing or said such and such a thing, but the Messenger of Allah never
> disapproved of that" ; or a companion or their successor(s) or anyone
> reports, stating explicitly that: "the Messenger of Allah has said that…"
> or states that: "It has been transmitted from the Messenger of Allah that
> he said …"
>
> *Hukmi *means that any companion who does not transmit anything from the
> earlier books (such as from the People of the Book) informs of anything in
> which there is no room for ijtihad – exercising personal judgement. For
> example, the companion informs us about events about the Prophets; or
> informs about events that shall happen in the future such as battles, wars
> and the trials and tribulations that shall inflict the Ummah; informing
> about the fright of the Day of Judgement; or inform about a specific reward
> or punishment for an action, as a companion cannot inform about these
> things without having heard it from the Messenger of Allah. Hukmi also
> means that a companion does something in which there is no room for
> ijtihad; they must have seen the Messenger of Allah do it, thus, following
> the Messenger of Allah the companions have done it. Moreover, a companion
> states that, "In the blessed era of the Messenger of Allah, people used to
> do such and such.." this is also Hukmi as it is quite apparent that the
> Messenger of Allah must have known about their action, as revelation still
> continued. If that action was impermissible, then the Messenger of Allah
> must certainly have been informed about it through revelation, and thence,
> prohibited the companion(s) from doing so.
>
> Hadith can also be defined as to include the reported speech, action or
> taqreer (tacit approval - what was said or done in front of a companion,
> and the latter did not condemn it). A companion is such a noble
> personality, who was blessed with being in the company of the Messenger of
> Allah, while the companion is in the state of Iman, and also passed away in
> that state (of Iman).
>
> Hadith also means the reported speech, action or taqreer of the successors
> to the companions of the Messenger of Allah – the Tabi'un. A successor
> (Tabi'i) is such a noble personality, who was blessed with being in the
> company of a companion of the Messenger of Allah, in the state of Iman, and
> also passed away in the state of Iman.
>
> *
> *
> Fundamental Division of a Hadith
>
> After knowing the above definitions as mentioned by Hadrat Shaikh 'Abd
> al-Haq "Muhaddith-e-Dehlwi", Hadith can be categorised into three types:
>
> *1. The chain explicitly or implicitly goes to the Messenger of Allah. This
> is called marfu' – 'the raised-chain'.
> 2. The chain explicitly or implicitly goes to a Companion. This is called
> mawquf – the 'halted-chain'.
> 3. The chain explicitly or implicitly goes to a Successor. This is called
> maqtu' – the 'broken-chain'.*
>
> From the point of view of authenticity (proof of genuineness or otherwise)
> there are many kinds of aHadith, but we shall confine ourselves to mention
> and examine only three kinds of aHadith which are common among the masses,
> namely
>
> *(1) Hadith-e-Sahih or Accurate
> (2) Hadith-e-Hasan or good and reliable and
> (3) Hadith-e-Daeef or weak and of doubtful origin.*
>
> *SAHIH* is that which contains these four qualities
>
> (a) The authenticity of which is assured by the contiuance of the chain of
> Reporters or Narrators (Ravis) is unbroken or uninterrupted from the Holy
> Prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon Him) to the Compiler or Last Reporter
> (Ravi). This means that there should be no gap in the chain of reporters,
> one connected with the following or next reporter till the last reporter.
>
> (b) Each reporter or narrator of the Hadith must be a person of righteous
> moral excellence in all his sayings and deeds in all walks of life. No
> transgressor (Fasiq) or one whose autecedents or past career is hidden and
> unknown cannot be accepted as an authentic or qualified Ravi or Reporter of
> the Hadith
>
> (c) All the reporters must possess healthy retentive memory, without
> becoming weak on account of illness or senility
>
> (d) The Hadith reported by him must not be rare or of an uncommon or
> peculiar nature. It must bear the mark of common or natural occurrence or
> in other words it must not be against well known Hadith called
> Hadith-e-Mash'hoorah.
>
> *HASAN:* By this kind of Hadith is meant that its Narrator or reporter may
> ot possess the qualities required of a Ravi of Sahih Hadith; his
> righteousness (Taqva) or memory not be of the execllent level or which has
> been imparied on account of sickness, senility or some accident.
>
> *DAEEF:* The Narrator of such a Hadith is not righteous or whose memory is
> not strong and healthy and reliable.
>
>
> The Status of Hadith in Religion
>
> It does not need us to explain that the first and foremost primary source
> of the Sacred Law (Shari'ah) is the Holy Qur'an – the Book of Allah. It is
> through the clear and explicit commands and teachings of the Holy Qur'an
> that we are obliged to follow the Messenger of Allah. This is because,
> without the Messenger of Allah it is merely impossible for anyone to
> understand the Qur'an; its explanations and meanings, and it is also
> impossible to learn the detailed rulings of each and every obligation in
> Islam.
>
> Therefore, the Ahadith of the Messenger of Allah certainly form the second
> source for the Sacred Islamic Law - the Shari'ah, as these are the one and
> only means of gaining information as regards the Messenger of Allah; his
> commands; his sayings; his actions; his explanations and commentaries on
> the verses of the Holy Qur'an, all of which are necessary for us to know in
> order for us to understand the Holy Qur'an.
>
> Now, we quote a few of the many verses from the Holy Qur'an, in which on
> innumerable occasions we have been commanded to follow in the footsteps of
> the Messenger of Allah. Thus, making it obligatory upon us to follow his
> teachings.
>
> I. "O believers! Obey Allah and His Messenger and turn not away from him
> after hearing him…" [Surah:8 – al-Anfal, Verse:20]
>
> II. "And obey Allah and His Messenger and dispute not with one another,
> otherwise you will show timidity…" [Surah:8 – al-Anfal, Verse:46]
>
> III. "And We did not send any Messenger but that he should be obeyed by
> Allah's will." [Surah:4 – al-Nisa', Verse:64]
>
> IV. "O beloved! Say, 'O people! If you love Allah, then follow me; Allah
> will love you…" [Surah:3 – Al-e-Imran, Verse:31]
>
> V. "then, O beloved! By your Lord, they shall not be Muslims until they
> make you judge in all disputes among themselves…" [Surah:4 – al-Nisa,
> Verse:65]
>
> VI. "O believers! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those who have
> power of command amongst you, then again if there may arise any difference
> amongst you, refer it to Allah and His Messenger…" [Surah:4 – al-Nisa',
> Verse:59]
>
> VII. "O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and let not
> your deeds go waste." [Surah:47 – Muhammad, Verse:33]
>
> VIII. "He who obeys the Messenger, then verily he has obeyed Allah…"
> [Surah:4
> – al-Nisa', Verse:80]
>
> IX. "O beloved! Say: 'Obey Allah and the Messenger.' then, if they turn
> away, surely Allah loves not the infidels." [Surah:3 – Al-e-Imran,
> Verse:32]
>
> X. "And what the Messenger gives you, take it and what he forbids you, and
> abstain from it…" [Surah:59 – al-Hashr, Verse:7]
>
> XI. "Surely you have an excellent example for your guidance in (the life
> of) the Messenger of Allah…" [Surah:33 – al-Ahzab, Verse:21]
>
> It has been clearly established and proven from the above-quoted verses
> from the Holy Qur'an that it is incumbent upon each and every Muslim to
> follow the Messenger of Allah, and his teachings.
>
> Therefore, all of the law and orders enforced by the Messenger of Allah are
> incumbent upon us to follow in the same way, as it is obligatory upon us to
> follow every Divine command that is transmitted to us by the Holy Qur'an,
> as the command of the Messenger of Allah is indirectly the command of Allah
> the Most Exalted.
>
> * One Fundamental Question:*
>
> After having understood all of what has just been explained, we should
> contemplate and ponder carefully upon a question that is posed: "Is this
> command of following the Messenger of Allah as reiterated by many verses of
> the Holy Qur'an (as mentioned above) only related to when the Messenger of
> Allah was physically alive in this mundane world, or does this apply till
> the Day of Judgement?"
>
> If – Allah forbid! – this Divine command was specified only to the physical
> life of the Messenger of Allah, then this would quite simply, in other
> words, mean that acting upon the Qur'an, following the teachings of Islam
> is also limited and specified to the blessed era of the Messenger of Allah.
> This is because to follow the teachings and sayings of the Messenger of
> Allah were made incumbent upon every single Muslim, only for the fact that
> without this, it is impossible for anyone to follow the teachings of Islam
> and the Qur'an. Thus, when it has been commanded to follow Islam, Qur'an
> and its teachings till the Day of Judgement, then it has been proven that
> to follow the Messenger of Allah and showing obedience to him is also a
> command that shall not cease till the Day of Judgement.
>
>
> One Great Proof for the Authentication of Ahadith
>
> When it has been clearly understood that to follow Islam and the Qur'an is
> till the Day of Resurrection, and that it is impossible for anyone to have
> knowledge and thus act upon the laws and rulings of Islam and the Holy
> Qur'an without following and imitating the Messenger of Allah, then another
> fundamental question arises: According to rational thinking, the language,
> the common law and the Sacred Islamic Law it is always the commands and
> orders that are followed. Thus, where are those commands and orders
> enforced by the Messenger of Allah, whose obedience, imitation and
> following the Qur'an has made obligatory upon us? This is because the
> demand to follow without having any laws, commands and orders (to follow
> them) is merely against logic and the Sacred Law itself!
>
> Therefore, when even today the Qur'an demands us to follow, imitate and
> obey the Messenger of Allah, it is necessary that the laws, orders and
> commands of the Messenger of Allah are present before us (so that we can
> 'follow'). It is apparent that the laws and commands of the Messenger of
> Allah are not those that have been given by Allah in His Book – the Qur'an,
> as it is quite sufficient as an obligation upon us to follow these Divine
> commands. So, we must believe after having stated all of this, that the
> laws and orders of the Messenger of Allah, whose following and obeying has
> been made obligatory upon as, are separate to those Divine commands that
> are mentioned in the Holy Qur'an.
>
> After this introduction, we need not say that the collection of the
> commands, laws, sayings, actions, explanations to the Qur'anic verses and
> Sacred laws that have been transmitted to us from the Messenger of Allah
> are called "Ahadith".
>
> From this we understand the importance of Ahadith, and its status in Islam.
> No one would deny its importance, only such a foolish person who denies
> obedience to the Messenger of Allah – Allah forbid!
>
>
> History on the Compilation of the Ahadith
>
> Before we touch upon the merits and virtues of the science of Hadith and
> what relates to it, it is necessary to explain why the Ahadith were
> compiled from the blessed era of the Companions till this date and how was
> the process of compilation?
>
> A very brief insight into this is that the blessed era of the Messenger of
> Allah was the time when the verses of the Holy Qur'an were being revealed.
> because the most important task in this era was the collection of these
> verses and preserving this Divine trust, this was why the Messenger of
> Allah emphasised over and over again that the Companions compile and write
> only the verses of the Holy Qur'an – nothing else. This was so that no
> confusion be made if anything besides the Holy Qur'an would also be
> recorded.
>
> However, permission was given to memorise, record, preserve and then
> transmit the Ahadith by tongue. Imam Muslim narrates from Hadrat Abu Sa'id
> al-Khudri, who reports that the Messenger of Allah has stated, "No one
> should write my speech. Whosoever has written anything beside the Qur'an
> should eliminate it; and transmit my Ahadith verbally; there is no harm in
> doing so. Whosoever attributes a lie to me, then he should prepare for
> himself an abode in the fire of Hell."
>
> on top of this, there were some Companions – who had full certainty not to
> confuse the Verses of the Holy Qur'an from the reported speech of the
> Messenger of Allah – who wrote the Ahadith.
>
> Imam al-Bukhari narrates on the authority of Hadrat Abu Hurairah who
> states, "There was none from among the Companions who narrated the most
> Ahadith except for Hadrat 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr (ibn al-'As); as he used to
> record them by writing them down, and I did not do that."
>
> When all of the verses of the Holy Qur'an – some that were written on
> separate pieces of paper, some on leaves, some on slates, some on deer
> skin, some that were memorised in the hearts – were collected and compiled
> into one book form during the blessed era of Hadrat 'Umar al-Faruq and
> Hadrat 'Uthman; and all of the copies of the Holy Qur'an were distributed
> far and wide to many different countries, by which there was no concern for
> the verses of the Holy Qur'an being confused with the reported speech
> (Ahadith) of the Messenger of Allah, the process of collecting, compiling
> and writing the Ahadith began in the era of the Righteous Caliph 'Umar ibn
> 'Abd al-'Aziz upon his suggestion.
>
> The editor of Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's commentary on the Alfiyyah
> states in the introduction that, "when Hadrat 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz was
> given the responsibility of being a Caliph in the year 99 A.H. he wrote to
> Hadrat Abu Bakr ibn Hazm – the Shaikh of the Imams Ma'mar, Laith, Awza'i,
> Malik, ibn Ishaq and Ibn Abi Dhi'b and also the vice of the Caliph in the
> Court of Justice of al-Madinah al-Munawwarah – to collect and compile all
> the Ahadith of the Messenger of Allah, as he feared (sacred) knowledge
> becoming extinct, and the demise of the possessors of this knowledge – the
> 'Ulema." [Introduction to the Alfiyyah – Page 5]
>
> Not only this, but in fact, Hadrat 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz wrote to all
> those far and wide to collect and compile any Hadith of the Messenger of
> Allah, they find. [Tarikh Isfahan – Abu Nu'aim]
>
> Upon the motivation, encouragement, and relentless efforts of Hadrat 'Umar
> ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz, the first book on the science of Hadith was compiled by
> Hadrat Abu Bakr ibn Hazm. Thereafter, innumerable books were written and
> compiled on different topics of this precious science of sacred knowledge,
> by many elite Shuyukh who came from many different places.
>
> Among those who compiled and wrote books of Hadith at this very early age
> of its compilation were ibn Juraij in Makkah al-Mukarramah; ibn Ishaq and
> Imam Malik in al-Madinah al-Munawwarah; Rabi' ibn Sabih, Sa'id ibn 'Urwah
> and Hammad ibn Salimah in Basra; Imam Sufyan al-Thawri in Kufa; Imam
> al-Awza'i in Syro-Palestine; Hisham in Wasit; Jarir ibn 'Abdullah in Rai,
> and ibn al-Mubarak in Khurasan. All of these men of great knowledge, were
> contemporary and of one category. Most of them were the students of Hadrat
> Abu Bakr ibn Hazm and Imam ibn Shihab al-Zuhri.
>
> Afterwards, the Ahadith were spread far and wide due to the compilation and
> writing of books on Ahadith; laying down the foundation principles for
> accepting or rejecting a report; collecting background information of the
> narrators and their beliefs; writing books on the etiquettes and manners
> essential for a student pursuing this sacred knowledge of Hadith. All of
> these were compiled to form a sub-subject of Hadith – Usul-e-Hadith or the
> Principles of Hadith.
>
> Ahadith were compiled using the rigorous of all criterions and rules to
> accept a report, until the Six Authentic Collections of Ahadith became
> accepted and popular. These are the Sahih of Imams Bukhari and Muslim, the
> Jami' of Imam al-Tirmidhi, the Sunan of Imams Abu Dawud, Nasa'i and Ibn
> Majah.
>
> We have shed some light upon Ahadith, its History of Compilation, and its
> status in Islam. Those true and sincere Muslims who love Islam and the
> Qur'an, and who recognise themselves as individuals of this Ummah, which is
> flourishing with its long-lasting heritage of over fourteen hundred years
> of an unbroken chain of transmission to our liege lord the Messenger of
> Allah, are not in need of any evidence to prove the veracity of Ahadith.
>
> Yes, however, for those hypocrites who deny the reliability of Ahadith, yet
> name themselves People of the Qur'an, if I had much time, I would make it
> apparent like the certitude of the sun at midday with irrefutable proofs
> and evidences that their denial of the Ahadith is in reality the denial of
> the words of Allah. They are not doing this only to make way for themselves
> not to follow the Qur'an.
>
> Their main argument is that the translation and meaning of the verses of
> the Holy Qur'an should be left to their own will; however they desire they
> extract the meanings of the Holy Qur'an, so that, even after altering the
> correct meaning and translation of the Qur'anic verses, they can falsely
> claim to be the followers of it.
>
> We ask Allah the Most Exalted to protect the Muslim Ummah from the evil of
> the onslaughts of those who reject Ahadith, and that he gives them guidance
> to broaden the light of Ahadith to eliminate the darkness that prevails the
> Ummah today.
>
> His choicest blessings and salutation be upon the best of His creation, our
> Master Muhammad, his progeny, upon his companions and all of his followers.
>
>
>
> — — —
> *Extracted From*
> Ja Al-Haq (The Obliteration of Falsehood)
> by Hakim al-Ummah Mufti Ahmad Yaar Khan Na'eemi
>
> --
> --
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[PF:172569] The Definition of Hadith and its Types

The Definition of Hadith and its Types


In the nomenclature of the majority of the Hadith specialists, a Hadith means:

It is the reported speech of the Messenger of Allah, whether this is: (a) explicit (sarih) or (b) implicit (hukmi). It is also the action of the Messenger of Allah, also split into the two categories, and also what someone did or said in front of the Messenger of Allah, but the Messenger of Allah did not condemn that action or what was said, but, in fact remained silent and established it through his action. This is also split into two categories, as mentioned above.

Sarih means that a companion of the Messenger of Allah clearly states that, "I heard the Messenger of Allah state that…" / "I saw the Messenger of Allah doing…" / "such and such a person or a person did such and such a thing or said such and such a thing, but the Messenger of Allah never disapproved of that" ; or a companion or their successor(s) or anyone reports, stating explicitly that: "the Messenger of Allah has said that…" or states that: "It has been transmitted from the Messenger of Allah that he said …"

Hukmi means that any companion who does not transmit anything from the earlier books (such as from the People of the Book) informs of anything in which there is no room for ijtihad – exercising personal judgement. For example, the companion informs us about events about the Prophets; or informs about events that shall happen in the future such as battles, wars and the trials and tribulations that shall inflict the Ummah; informing about the fright of the Day of Judgement; or inform about a specific reward or punishment for an action, as a companion cannot inform about these things without having heard it from the Messenger of Allah. Hukmi also means that a companion does something in which there is no room for ijtihad; they must have seen the Messenger of Allah do it, thus, following the Messenger of Allah the companions have done it. Moreover, a companion states that, "In the blessed era of the Messenger of Allah, people used to do such and such.." this is also Hukmi as it is quite apparent that the Messenger of Allah must have known about their action, as revelation still continued. If that action was impermissible, then the Messenger of Allah must certainly have been informed about it through revelation, and thence, prohibited the companion(s) from doing so.

Hadith can also be defined as to include the reported speech, action or taqreer (tacit approval - what was said or done in front of a companion, and the latter did not condemn it). A companion is such a noble personality, who was blessed with being in the company of the Messenger of Allah, while the companion is in the state of Iman, and also passed away in that state (of Iman).

Hadith also means the reported speech, action or taqreer of the successors to the companions of the Messenger of Allah – the Tabi'un. A successor (Tabi'i) is such a noble personality, who was blessed with being in the company of a companion of the Messenger of Allah, in the state of Iman, and also passed away in the state of Iman.
 

Fundamental Division of a Hadith

After knowing the above definitions as mentioned by Hadrat Shaikh 'Abd al-Haq "Muhaddith-e-Dehlwi", Hadith can be categorised into three types:

1. The chain explicitly or implicitly goes to the Messenger of Allah. This is called marfu' – 'the raised-chain'.
2. The chain explicitly or implicitly goes to a Companion. This is called mawquf – the 'halted-chain'.
3. The chain explicitly or implicitly goes to a Successor. This is called maqtu' – the 'broken-chain'.


From the point of view of authenticity (proof of genuineness or otherwise) there are many kinds of aHadith, but we shall confine ourselves to mention and examine only three kinds of aHadith which are common among the masses, namely

(1) Hadith-e-Sahih or Accurate
(2) Hadith-e-Hasan or good and reliable and
(3) Hadith-e-Daeef or weak and of doubtful origin.


SAHIH is that which contains these four qualities

(a) The authenticity of which is assured by the contiuance of the chain of Reporters or Narrators (Ravis) is unbroken or uninterrupted from the Holy Prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon Him) to the Compiler or Last Reporter (Ravi). This means that there should be no gap in the chain of reporters, one connected with the following or next reporter till the last reporter.

(b) Each reporter or narrator of the Hadith must be a person of righteous moral excellence in all his sayings and deeds in all walks of life. No transgressor (Fasiq) or one whose autecedents or past career is hidden and unknown cannot be accepted as an authentic or qualified Ravi or Reporter of the Hadith

(c) All the reporters must possess healthy retentive memory, without becoming weak on account of illness or senility

(d) The Hadith reported by him must not be rare or of an uncommon or peculiar nature. It must bear the mark of common or natural occurrence or in other words it must not be against well known Hadith called Hadith-e-Mash'hoorah.

HASAN: By this kind of Hadith is meant that its Narrator or reporter may ot possess the qualities required of a Ravi of Sahih Hadith; his righteousness (Taqva) or memory not be of the execllent level or which has been imparied on account of sickness, senility or some accident.

DAEEF: The Narrator of such a Hadith is not righteous or whose memory is not strong and healthy and reliable.
 
 
The Status of Hadith in Religion

It does not need us to explain that the first and foremost primary source of the Sacred Law (Shari'ah) is the Holy Qur'an – the Book of Allah. It is through the clear and explicit commands and teachings of the Holy Qur'an that we are obliged to follow the Messenger of Allah. This is because, without the Messenger of Allah it is merely impossible for anyone to understand the Qur'an; its explanations and meanings, and it is also impossible to learn the detailed rulings of each and every obligation in Islam.

Therefore, the Ahadith of the Messenger of Allah certainly form the second source for the Sacred Islamic Law - the Shari'ah, as these are the one and only means of gaining information as regards the Messenger of Allah; his commands; his sayings; his actions; his explanations and commentaries on the verses of the Holy Qur'an, all of which are necessary for us to know in order for us to understand the Holy Qur'an.

Now, we quote a few of the many verses from the Holy Qur'an, in which on innumerable occasions we have been commanded to follow in the footsteps of the Messenger of Allah. Thus, making it obligatory upon us to follow his teachings.

I. "O believers! Obey Allah and His Messenger and turn not away from him after hearing him…" [Surah:8 – al-Anfal, Verse:20]

II. "And obey Allah and His Messenger and dispute not with one another, otherwise you will show timidity…" [Surah:8 – al-Anfal, Verse:46]

III. "And We did not send any Messenger but that he should be obeyed by Allah's will." [Surah:4 – al-Nisa', Verse:64]

IV. "O beloved! Say, 'O people! If you love Allah, then follow me; Allah will love you…" [Surah:3 – Al-e-Imran, Verse:31]

V. "then, O beloved! By your Lord, they shall not be Muslims until they make you judge in all disputes among themselves…" [Surah:4 – al-Nisa, Verse:65]

VI. "O believers! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those who have power of command amongst you, then again if there may arise any difference amongst you, refer it to Allah and His Messenger…" [Surah:4 – al-Nisa', Verse:59]

VII. "O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and let not your deeds go waste." [Surah:47
Muhammad, Verse:33]

VIII. "He who obeys the Messenger, then verily he has obeyed Allah…" [Surah:4 – al-Nisa', Verse:80]

IX. "O beloved! Say: 'Obey Allah and the Messenger.' then, if they turn away, surely Allah loves not the infidels." [Surah:3 – Al-e-Imran, Verse:32]

X. "And what the Messenger gives you, take it and what he forbids you, and abstain from it…" [Surah:59 – al-Hashr, Verse:7]

XI. "Surely you have an excellent example for your guidance in (the life of) the Messenger of Allah…" [Surah:33 – al-Ahzab, Verse:21]

It has been clearly established and proven from the above-quoted verses from the Holy Qur'an that it is incumbent upon each and every Muslim to follow the Messenger of Allah, and his teachings.

Therefore, all of the law and orders enforced by the Messenger of Allah are incumbent upon us to follow in the same way, as it is obligatory upon us to follow every Divine command that is transmitted to us by the Holy Qur'an, as the command of the Messenger of Allah is indirectly the command of Allah the Most Exalted.
 
One Fundamental Question:

After having understood all of what has just been explained, we should contemplate and ponder carefully upon a question that is posed: "Is this command of following the Messenger of Allah as reiterated by many verses of the Holy Qur'an (as mentioned above) only related to when the Messenger of Allah was physically alive in this mundane world, or does this apply till the Day of Judgement?"

If – Allah forbid! – this Divine command was specified only to the physical life of the Messenger of Allah, then this would quite simply, in other words, mean that acting upon the Qur'an, following the teachings of Islam is also limited and specified to the blessed era of the Messenger of Allah. This is because to follow the teachings and sayings of the Messenger of Allah were made incumbent upon every single Muslim, only for the fact that without this, it is impossible for anyone to follow the teachings of Islam and the Qur'an. Thus, when it has been commanded to follow Islam, Qur'an and its teachings till the Day of Judgement, then it has been proven that to follow the Messenger of Allah and showing obedience to him is also a command that shall not cease till the Day of Judgement.
 
 
One Great Proof for the Authentication of Ahadith

When it has been clearly understood that to follow Islam and the Qur'an is till the Day of Resurrection, and that it is impossible for anyone to have knowledge and thus act upon the laws and rulings of Islam and the Holy Qur'an without following and imitating the Messenger of Allah, then another fundamental question arises: According to rational thinking, the language, the common law and the Sacred Islamic Law it is always the commands and orders that are followed. Thus, where are those commands and orders enforced by the Messenger of Allah, whose obedience, imitation and following the Qur'an has made obligatory upon us? This is because the demand to follow without having any laws, commands and orders (to follow them) is merely against logic and the Sacred Law itself!

Therefore, when even today the Qur'an demands us to follow, imitate and obey the Messenger of Allah, it is necessary that the laws, orders and commands of the Messenger of Allah are present before us (so that we can 'follow'). It is apparent that the laws and commands of the Messenger of Allah are not those that have been given by Allah in His Book – the Qur'an, as it is quite sufficient as an obligation upon us to follow these Divine commands. So, we must believe after having stated all of this, that the laws and orders of the Messenger of Allah, whose following and obeying has been made obligatory upon as, are separate to those Divine commands that are mentioned in the Holy Qur'an.

After this introduction, we need not say that the collection of the commands, laws, sayings, actions, explanations to the Qur'anic verses and Sacred laws that have been transmitted to us from the Messenger of Allah are called "Ahadith".

From this we understand the importance of Ahadith, and its status in Islam. No one would deny its importance, only such a foolish person who denies obedience to the Messenger of Allah – Allah forbid!
 
 
History on the Compilation of the Ahadith

Before we touch upon the merits and virtues of the science of Hadith and what relates to it, it is necessary to explain why the Ahadith were compiled from the blessed era of the Companions till this date and how was the process of compilation?

A very brief insight into this is that the blessed era of the Messenger of Allah was the time when the verses of the Holy Qur'an were being revealed. because the most important task in this era was the collection of these verses and preserving this Divine trust, this was why the Messenger of Allah emphasised over and over again that the Companions compile and write only the verses of the Holy Qur'an – nothing else. This was so that no confusion be made if anything besides the Holy Qur'an would also be recorded.

However, permission was given to memorise, record, preserve and then transmit the Ahadith by tongue. Imam Muslim narrates from Hadrat Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, who reports that the Messenger of Allah has stated, "No one should write my speech. Whosoever has written anything beside the Qur'an should eliminate it; and transmit my Ahadith verbally; there is no harm in doing so. Whosoever attributes a lie to me, then he should prepare for himself an abode in the fire of Hell."

on top of this, there were some Companions – who had full certainty not to confuse the Verses of the Holy Qur'an from the reported speech of the Messenger of Allah – who wrote the Ahadith.

Imam al-Bukhari narrates on the authority of Hadrat Abu Hurairah who states, "There was none from among the Companions who narrated the most Ahadith except for Hadrat 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr (ibn al-'As); as he used to record them by writing them down, and I did not do that."

When all of the verses of the Holy Qur'an – some that were written on separate pieces of paper, some on leaves, some on slates, some on deer skin, some that were memorised in the hearts – were collected and compiled into one book form during the blessed era of Hadrat 'Umar al-Faruq and Hadrat 'Uthman; and all of the copies of the Holy Qur'an were distributed far and wide to many different countries, by which there was no concern for the verses of the Holy Qur'an being confused with the reported speech (Ahadith) of the Messenger of Allah, the process of collecting, compiling and writing the Ahadith began in the era of the Righteous Caliph 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz upon his suggestion.

The editor of Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's commentary on the Alfiyyah states in the introduction that, "when Hadrat 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz was given the responsibility of being a Caliph in the year 99 A.H. he wrote to Hadrat Abu Bakr ibn Hazm – the Shaikh of the Imams Ma'mar, Laith, Awza'i, Malik, ibn Ishaq and Ibn Abi Dhi'b and also the vice of the Caliph in the Court of Justice of al-Madinah al-Munawwarah – to collect and compile all the Ahadith of the Messenger of Allah, as he feared (sacred) knowledge becoming extinct, and the demise of the possessors of this knowledge – the 'Ulema." [Introduction to the Alfiyyah – Page 5]

Not only this, but in fact, Hadrat 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz wrote to all those far and wide to collect and compile any Hadith of the Messenger of Allah, they find. [Tarikh Isfahan – Abu Nu'aim]

Upon the motivation, encouragement, and relentless efforts of Hadrat 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz, the first book on the science of Hadith was compiled by Hadrat Abu Bakr ibn Hazm. Thereafter, innumerable books were written and compiled on different topics of this precious science of sacred knowledge, by many elite Shuyukh who came from many different places.

Among those who compiled and wrote books of Hadith at this very early age of its compilation were ibn Juraij in Makkah al-Mukarramah; ibn Ishaq and Imam Malik in al-Madinah al-Munawwarah; Rabi' ibn Sabih, Sa'id ibn 'Urwah and Hammad ibn Salimah in Basra; Imam Sufyan al-Thawri in Kufa; Imam al-Awza'i in Syro-Palestine; Hisham in Wasit; Jarir ibn 'Abdullah in Rai, and ibn al-Mubarak in Khurasan. All of these men of great knowledge, were contemporary and of one category. Most of them were the students of Hadrat Abu Bakr ibn Hazm and Imam ibn Shihab al-Zuhri.

Afterwards, the Ahadith were spread far and wide due to the compilation and writing of books on Ahadith; laying down the foundation principles for accepting or rejecting a report; collecting background information of the narrators and their beliefs; writing books on the etiquettes and manners essential for a student pursuing this sacred knowledge of Hadith. All of these were compiled to form a sub-subject of Hadith – Usul-e-Hadith or the Principles of Hadith.

Ahadith were compiled using the rigorous of all criterions and rules to accept a report, until the Six Authentic Collections of Ahadith became accepted and popular. These are the Sahih of Imams Bukhari and Muslim, the Jami' of Imam al-Tirmidhi, the Sunan of Imams Abu Dawud, Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.

We have shed some light upon Ahadith, its History of Compilation, and its status in Islam. Those true and sincere Muslims who love Islam and the Qur'an, and who recognise themselves as individuals of this Ummah, which is flourishing with its long-lasting heritage of over fourteen hundred years of an unbroken chain of transmission to our liege lord the Messenger of Allah, are not in need of any evidence to prove the veracity of Ahadith.

Yes, however, for those hypocrites who deny the reliability of Ahadith, yet name themselves People of the Qur'an, if I had much time, I would make it apparent like the certitude of the sun at midday with irrefutable proofs and evidences that their denial of the Ahadith is in reality the denial of the words of Allah. They are not doing this only to make way for themselves not to follow the Qur'an.

Their main argument is that the translation and meaning of the verses of the Holy Qur'an should be left to their own will; however they desire they extract the meanings of the Holy Qur'an, so that, even after altering the correct meaning and translation of the Qur'anic verses, they can falsely claim to be the followers of it.

We ask Allah the Most Exalted to protect the Muslim Ummah from the evil of the onslaughts of those who reject Ahadith, and that he gives them guidance to broaden the light of Ahadith to eliminate the darkness that prevails the Ummah today.

His choicest blessings and salutation be upon the best of His creation, our Master Muhammad, his progeny, upon his companions and all of his followers.
 


— — —
Extracted From
Ja Al-Haq (The Obliteration of Falsehood)
by Hakim al-Ummah Mufti Ahmad Yaar Khan Na'eemi

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Re: {Kantakji Group}. Add '12064' Fwd: خياراتنا الصعبة بين ترجمة العلوم الاقتصادية وترجمة العقول الاقتصادية د.عبدالباري مشعل

السلام عليكم:

س: هنالك جامعات عربية تواكب الجامعات الأمريكية لكن لا توجد نتائج مرضية


2013/9/8 Dr. Samer Kantakji <kantakji@gmail.com>
---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Mohanad AL-Dakash <mohanadaldakash@hotmail.com>
Date: 2013/9/8
Subject: خياراتنا الصعبة بين ترجمة العلوم الاقتصادية وترجمة العقول الاقتصادية د.عبدالباري مشعل

خياراتنا الصعبة بين ترجمة العلوم الاقتصادية وترجمة العقول الاقتصادية د.عبدالباري مشعل

http://www.raqaba.co.uk/node/1051/


دعاني أحد الذين اعتادوا ترجمة بعض الكتب الإسلامية من العربية إلى الإنجليزية ذات مرة لمراجعة ترجمته لكتاب عنوانه "الفائدة" من الإنجليزية إلى العربية قبل تسع سنوات تقريباً.
بدأت بقراءة الترجمة فشعرت أنني أفك ألغازا وأحلل كلمات متقاطعة مصطلحات لا تمت بصلة للاقتصاد، فضلا عن تراكيب لغوية سقيمة بسبب تأثرها الكبير باللغة الإنجليزية. فطلبت إليه أن يهتم باستخدام المصطلحات الاقتصادية وأن يهتم بإعادة بنية العبارة. اتصل بي متذمرا وشرح لي بعصبية خبرته الكبيرة في الترجمة حيث ترجمة لكتاب فقه السنة للسيد سابق وغيره من الكتب الدينية، وأنه لا يطلب مني سوى مراجعة ترجمته العتيدة فكانت النتيجة أني أهملت طلبه.

تظهر المكتبة الاقتصادية المتخصصة أن فترة الستينات والسبعينات من القرن الماضي تميزت بحركة ترجمة نشطة وواعية. فقد نقلت إلينا أفضل ما كتب في الاقتصاد والتنمية والفكر الاقتصادي في الغرب. والمطلع على الكتب المترجمة في ذلك الوقت من قبل المصريين وأيضا العراقيين يستمتع بسلاسة العبارة ومتانتها العلمية وجمال بنيتها اللغوية والبلاغية دون أن يدرك أن أصل الكتاب بلغة أخرى.

لقد قام بتلك الترجمات وراجعها أساتذة متخصصون في الاقتصاد وفي الوقت نفسه يتمتعون بسلامة اللغة والنحو والبلاغة. والحقيقة ليس لدي معلومات دقيقة عن البيئة التي ساعدت على هذا النجاح غير أنه من المؤكد أنه ساهم في ذلك الفكر القومي لجمال عبدالناصر الذي دعم رسميا هذه الحركة. وربما شهد العراق نشاط مماثلاً للأسباب نفسها.

لقد تمكن المصريون بلغتهم العربية السليمة أن يضعوا ترجمات علمية مختصرة ومعبرة لكل المصطلحات الاقتصادية. وأصبحت تشكل كتبهم مراجع علمية معتبرة للدراسة المنهجية وغير المنهجية. وأعتقد أن اعتماد الترجمات الناجحة للكتب الاقتصادية الدراسية أولى بكثير من اعتماد كتب عربية، لأن الواقع أثبت أن الكتب العربية المتخصصة في الاقتصاد ما هي إلا ترجمات تقل عن أصولها الإنجليزية في الفصول الدراسية والوسائل التعليمية فما يصل لطلبتنا من علم ومهارات إلا جزء مما يصل لنظرائهم في الجامعات الأمريكية.

في الثمانينات من القرن الماضي ما تلاها تلاشى تدريجيا هذا التميز في المواكبة في نوعية الكتب المترجمة وفي لغة الترجمة، ونشطت الترجمة اللبنانية بالتوازي مع نشاط ترجمة للكتب الدراسية المتخصصة في مجال الاقتصاد في السعودية لكن المطلع على هذه الترجمات يلاحظ أنها تفتقد إلى كثير من العناصر الأساسية في فن الترجمة. وانتشرت في هذه الفترة كتب الأساتذة التي تفتقد إلى الهوية التي يمكن أن يتميز بها الدراسون للاقتصاد حيث يكون الكتاب في أصله عبارة عن كتاب للمدرس قد ترجمه من أحد الكتب الإنجليزية أو نسخه مباشرة عن أحد الكتب العربية المترجمة أصلا ًوألزم به طلبته كمرجع دراسي والزمهم بشرائه أو تصويره وربما اتفق مع مركز التصوير لمقاسمة العائد.

وعلى صعيد آخر انتاب الضعف الدراسة الاقتصادية عندما تولاها العائدون من الدراسة في الجامعات الأمريكية والغربية فهؤلاء غابت عنهم المصطلحات الاقتصادية المستقرة التي تحدثنا عنها وأصبحوا يدخلون ترجمات جديدة لا ترقى إلى صفة المصطلح لكثير من المصطلحات الاقتصادية فأحدث ذلك فجوة بين الدراسين للاقتصاد على أيد الأساتذة المصريين الكبار والمراجع العلمية المترجمة ترجمة متميزة وبين الدارسين الجدد ولا أتوقع أن تميزا قد حدث بناء على هذا لصالح الدارسين الجدد لأن الطبخة في الحال الثانية قد تدخل فيها طباخون كثر ولم تكن وفق رؤية منهجية متكاملة.

لقد حصل هؤلاء الأساتذة على دراسة منهجية جيدة في بلاد الابتعاث لكنهم لن يستطيعوا بمفردهم نقل تلك المنهجية الدراسية بشكل متكامل لجامعاتنا. لا بد أن يكون ذلك في مطبخ واحد على مستوى الجامعة أو الجامعات في الدولة. بل إن ممارساتهم الفردية قد أحدثت ازدواجية في المنهجية في جامعاتنا العربية.

أرى أن جامعاتنا في حاجة ماسة لمراجعة الكتب الدراسية المقررة في أقسام الاقتصاد وأمامنا خياران في هذا الاتجاه:
الأول: اعتماد منهجية دراسية متكاملة تتطابق مع منهجية الدراسة في الجامعات الأمريكية المتخصصة، واعتماد ذات الكتب بترجمات عربية متقدمة من حيث سلامة المصطلحات واللغة وصياغة العبارة وهو عمل كبير ولا يمكن القيام به إلا من خلال فرق عمل كبيرة ورعاية حكومية وجامعية عليا. وتخدمنا في هذا سلسلة ملخصات شوم الدراسية بنسبة كبيرة التي تتمتع بسلامة الترجمة في كل مجالات الدراسة المنهجية المتخصصة. وبالتالي نستغني عن كثير من التعب والعناء والتشتت الذي يواجهه المدرسون والطلبة في كليات الاقتصاد.

الثاني: اعتماد الكتب الدراسية كما هي في الجامعات الأمريكية المتخصصة بلغتها الإنجليزية، ودراستها باللغة نفسها، وهذا يريحنا من عناء الترجمة وضرورة مواكبة المستجدات. وهذا سيساعد على ترجمة العقل الاقتصادي ليحفظ المصطلحات والمعاني والمرامي بلغتها الأم.

إنني أفضل دراسة الاقتصاد بلغته الأم أو عن كتاب مترجم ترجمة شاملة لشروط السلامة من حيث المصطلحات واللغة والصياغة مع ضرورة وضع المصطلح الإنجليزي والعربي مع بعضهما بصفة مستمرة ولا أعبأ وألا ألتفت لعشرات الكتب المؤلفة في الكتب الدراسية الاقتصادية باللغة العربية؛ بل أرى أن البعد عنها من فضائل الأعمال. وكما يقول المثل: "اسأل مجرِّب ولا تسأل خبير".

أتمنى من كليات الاقتصاد في العالم العربي أن تقوم بعمل توأمة مع جامعات أمريكية أو أوربية كحل دائم لتطوير دراسة الاقتصاد في بلادنا العربية. وهو أقصر الطرق لضمان أرضية سليمة منهجياً لخدمة الاقتصاد الإسلامي.

إن الذين أتحفونا بعطائهم في مجال الاقتصاد الإسلامي كلهم من دراسي الاقتصاد في الغرب، والذين شوهوا الاقتصاد الإسلامي بكتاباتهم الفارغة كلهم من خريجي الاقتصاد في جامعات عربية. أما أنا وأمثالي من طلبة الاقتصاد الإسلامي فمن همومنا أن نتلمس الطريق بين هؤلاء وهؤلاء لخدمة الاقتصاد الإسلامي بشكل أفضل.


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ترك ما عارض أهل السنة والجماعة... الاكتفاء بأمور ذات علاقة بالاقتصاد الإسلامي وعلومه ولو بالشيء البسيط، ويستثنى من هذا مايتعلق بالشأن العام على مستوى الأمة... عدم ذكر ما يتعلق بشخص طبيعي أو اعتباري بعينه باستثناء الأمر العام الذي يهم عامة المسلمين... تمرير بعض الأشياء الخفيفة المسلية ضمن قواعد الأدب وخاصة منها التي تأتي من أعضاء لا يشاركون عادة، والقصد من ذلك تشجيعهم على التفاعل الإيجابي... ترك المديح الشخصي...إن كل المقالات والآراء المنشورة تُعبر عن رأي أصحابها، ولا تعبّر عن رأي إدارة المجموعة بالضرورة.
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ترك ما عارض أهل السنة والجماعة... الاكتفاء بأمور ذات علاقة بالاقتصاد الإسلامي وعلومه ولو بالشيء البسيط، ويستثنى من هذا مايتعلق بالشأن العام على مستوى الأمة... عدم ذكر ما يتعلق بشخص طبيعي أو اعتباري بعينه باستثناء الأمر العام الذي يهم عامة المسلمين... تمرير بعض الأشياء الخفيفة المسلية ضمن قواعد الأدب وخاصة منها التي تأتي من أعضاء لا يشاركون عادة، والقصد من ذلك تشجيعهم على التفاعل الإيجابي... ترك المديح الشخصي...إن كل المقالات والآراء المنشورة تُعبر عن رأي أصحابها، ولا تعبّر عن رأي إدارة المجموعة بالضرورة.
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[PF:172572] Quit playing games with pakistan's heart "Karachi"

http://blog.jang.com.pk/blog_details.asp?id=8869

 

کراچی کے ساتھ مذاق کب تک؟

[PF:172567] That u Will Love





 







Frown when you get upset...
 

Read books that you enjoy...
 

 
 
Play with simple things...

Do whatever you want whenever you want...

Look for affection when you need it...

Get serious once in a while...

 
Forget about diets...

Show some affection...

Get angry once in a while...

Change your look...

Be happy, above all, regardless what your challenges may be... These are only to show you how strong we can be and overcome them...
 


__._,_



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what was my fault


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