Monday, 21 October 2013

{Kantakji Group}. Add '12153' Fwd: Invitation to subscription (دعوة للاشتراك )

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From: Abdulelah AlJomaih <aaljomaih@isdb.org>
Date: Tue, Oct 22, 2013 at 8:50 AM
Subject: Invitation to subscription (دعوة للاشتراك )



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[PF:172735] Engineers

Engineers #1
Two engineering students were biking across a university campus when one said, "Where did you get such a great bike?" The second engineer replied, "Well, I was walking along yesterday, minding my own business, when a beautiful woman rode up on this bike, threw it to the ground, took off her jackets and said, "Take what you want." The first engineer nodded approvingly and said, "Good choice: The jacket probably wouldn't have fit you anyway."

Engineers #2
To the optimist, the glass is half-full. To the pessimist, the glass is half-empty. To the engineer, the glass is twice as big as it needs to be.

Engineers #3
A priest, a doctor, and an engineer were waiting one morning for a particularly slow group of golfers. The engineer fumed, "What's with those guys? We must have been waiting for fifteen minutes!" The doctor chimed in, "I don't know, but I've never seen such inept golf!" The priest said, "Here comes the greens-keeper. Let's have a word with him." He said, "Hello George, What's wrong with that group ahead of us? They're rather slow, aren't they?" The greens-keeper replied, "Oh, yes. That's a group of blind firemen. They lost their sight saving our clubhouse from a fire last year, so we always let them play for free anytime!." The group fell silent for a moment. The priest said, "That's so sad. I think I will say a special prayer for them tonight." The doctor said, "Good idea. I'm going to contact my ophthalmologist colleague and see if there's anything she can do for them." The engineer said, "Why can't they play at night?"

Engineers #4
What is the difference between mechanical engineers and civil engineers? Mechanical engineers build weapons. Civil engineers build targets.

Engineers #5
The graduate with a science degree asks, "Why does it work?" The graduate with an engineering degree asks, "How does it work?" The graduate with an accounting degree asks, "How much will it cost?" The graduate with an arts degree asks, "Do you want fries with that?"

Engineers #6
Normal people believe that if it ain't broke, don't fix it. Engineers believe that if it ain't broke, it doesn't have enough features yet.

Engineers #7
Two engineers were standing at the base of a flagpole, looking at its top. A woman walked by and asked what they were doing.
"We're supposed to find the height of this flagpole," said one engineer, "but we don't have a ladder."
The woman took a wrench from her purse, loosened a couple of bolts, and laid the pole down on the ground. Then she took a tape measure from her pocketbook, took a measurement, announced, "Twentyone feet, six inches," and walked away.
The other engineer shook his head and said, "A lot of good that does us. We ask for the height and she gives us the length!"

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{Kantakji Group}. Add '12152' Malaysia's Najib seen levying consumption tax to curb budget deficit

Oct 22 (Reuters) - Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak will trim the government's hefty subsidy bill and likely announce a new consumption tax later this week as he delivers a budget seen as crucial to ward off a possible credit downgrade and reassure investors over the Southeast Asian country's fast-growing debt burden.
After securing his power base in ruling party elections over the weekend, Najib should have a freer hand to tackle a high fiscal deficit with unpopular steps to wean Malaysians off cheap fuel and food.
But the budget, to be unveiled in parliament on Friday, is unlikely to make drastic cuts to subsidies that take up about a fifth of government spending, or include deeper reforms such as reducing a bloated, but politically influential, civil service.
Any wavering over reforms the government has flagged, such the introduction of a Goods and Services Tax (GST), would disappoint investors, uneasy with Malaysia's shrinking current account surplus and a budget gap that is the second-biggest in emerging Asia.
"The government will have to show the political will to address the situation," said Chua Hak Bin, a Singapore-based economist at Bank of America Merrill Lynch.
In July, ratings agency Fitch cut its outlook on Malaysia's sovereign debt to negative, citing gloomier prospects for reforms in the wake of the ruling coalition's weak election result in May that appeared to undermine Najib's standing.
Slowing economic growth is weighing on Malaysia's efforts to improve its finances. Malaysia's central bank cut its forecast for full-year 2013 growth to 4.5-5.0 percent from 5-6 percent.
Years of heavy spending, including Najib's own pre-election giveaways and a fast-growing civil service wage bill, have hampered efforts to reduce the chronic budget deficit. Najib aims to trim the gap from 4.5 percent of GDP in 2012 to 4 percent in 2013 and 3.5 percent in 2014 before returning to a surplus by around 2020.
The deficit has pushed Malaysia's national debt to 53.5 percent of gross domestic product from 43 percent in 2008, close to a self-imposed limit of 55 percent.
TRIMMING, NOT SLASHING, SUBSIDIES
Najib, who trimmed fuel subsidies by 3.3 billion ringgit ($1 billion) per year shortly after the Fitch announcement, prepared the ground for further cuts in a blog post on Sunday.
"I believe we need to take long-term measures to reduce dependence on government subsidies at present so we will not burden future generations," he wrote.
Referring to fuel subsidies, he said: "the money can be channeled to other areas that are more important, such as education and infrastructure improvements."
The government has allocated 24.8 billion ringgit for fuel subsidies this year.
Rahul Bajoria, an economist at Barclays Capital in Singapore, said expectations among institutional investors were "quite low" for the budget, and that fuel subsidy cuts would likely be limited.
"There is some expectation he will follow through on the momentum. But he's not going to hike prices by 10 percent in the next three months or anything like that."
Najib said steps would be implemented gradually and that low-income groups would receive help to cope with price rises, signalling another likely round of cash handouts that totalled around 3 billion ringgit in last year's budget.
Malaysian consumers can expect another hit from the new consumption tax, although it is unlikely to be implemented until 2015, three years before the next election falls due. The long-delayed tax, seen as crucial to cut Malaysia's heavy dependence on oil revenues, would replace the current narrower sales and service taxes and apply to all stages of transactions. Currently, only about 10 percent of Malaysia's workforce pays income taxes.
The tax is likely to be introduced at a rate of at least 4 percent, which Bajoria of Barclays said would be revenue neutral. Bajoria said the government could opt for a 5 percent rate, which he said would be revenue positive to the tune of 5-6 billion ringgit.
"It makes sense for them to pull the trigger this time round," Bajoria said.
Najib could also opt to hike the property gains tax in a move to cool property prices, which have risen by about a third in the past three years, with even bigger rises in hot spots such as parts of southern Johor state.
Tough action against speculators could have a knock-on effect on shares in Malaysia-listed property firms such as SP Setia and Mah Sing Group. (Writing by Stuart Grudgings; editing by Simon Cameron-Moore)

[PF:172734] HOW A PROCESSOR IS MADE

.

 

Sand. Made up of 25 percent silicon, is, after oxygen, the second most abundant chemical 

element that's in the earth's crust. Sand, especially quartz, has high percentages of silicon in 

the form of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and is the base ingredient for semiconductor manufacturing.
  

  
After procuring raw sand and separating the silicon, the excess material is disposed of and 

the silicon is purified in multiple steps to finally reach semiconductor manufacturing quality 

which is called electronic grade silicon. The resulting purity is so great that electronic grade silicon

 may only have one alien atom for every one billion silicon atoms. After the purification process, 

the silicon enters the melting phase. In this picture you can see how one big crystal is grown from 

the purified silicon melt. The resulting mono-crystal is called an ingot.
  

  
A mono-crystal ingot is produced from electronic grade silicon. One ingot weighs approximately

 100 kilograms (or 220 pounds) and has a silicon purity of 99.9999 percent. 
  

  
The ingot is then moved onto the slicing phase where individual silicon discs, called wafers, 

are sliced thin. Some ingots can stand higher than five feet. Several different diameters of ingots exist

 depending on the required wafer size. Today, CPUs are commonly made on 300 mm wafers.
  

  
Once cut, the wafers are polished until they have flawless, mirror-smooth surfaces. Intel

 doesn't produce its own ingots and wafers, and instead purchases manufacturing-ready wafers from

 third-party companies. Intel's advanced 45 nm High-K/Metal Gate process uses wafers with a diameter of

 300 mm (or 12-inches). When Intel first began making chips, it printed circuits on 50 mm (2-inches) wafers. 

These days, Intel uses 300 mm wafers, resulting in decreased costs per chip. 
  

  
The blue liquid, depicted above, is a photo resist finish similar to those used in film for photography.

 The wafer spins during this step to allow an evenly-distributed coating that's smooth and also very thin.
  

  
At this stage, the photo-resistant finish is exposed to ultra violet (UV) light. The chemical reaction

 triggered by the UV light is similar to what happens to film material in a camera 

the moment you press the shutter button.

Areas of the resist on the wafer that have been exposed to UV light will become soluble. 

The exposure is done using masks that act like stencils. When used with UV light, masks create 

the various circuit patterns. The building of a CPU essentially repeats this process over and over

 until multiple layers are stacked on top of each other.

A lens (middle) reduces the mask's image to a small focal point. The resulting "print" on the wafer is

 typically four times smaller, linearly, than the mask's pattern. 
  

  
In the picture we have a representation of what a single transistor would appear like if 

we could see it with the naked eye. A transistor acts as a switch, controlling the flow of 

electrical current in a computer chip. Intel researchers have developed transistors so small that

 they claim roughly 30 million of them could fit on the head of a pin.
  

  
After being exposed to UV light, the exposed blue photo resist areas are completely dissolved by

 a solvent. This reveals a pattern of photo resist made by the mask. The beginnings of transistors, 

interconnects, and other electrical contacts begin to grow from this point.
  

  
The photo resist layer protects wafer material that should not be etched away. Areas that 

were exposed will be etched away with chemicals.
  

  
After the etching, the photo resist is removed and the desired shape becomes visible. 
  

  
More photo resist (blue) is applied and then re-exposed to UV light. Exposed photo resist is 

then washed off again before the next step, which is called ion doping. This is the step where

 ion particles are exposed to the wafer, allowing the silicon to change its chemical properties in 

a way that allows the CPU to control the flow of electricity. 
  

  
Through a process called ion implantation (one form of a process called doping) the exposed

 areas of the silicon wafer are bombarded with ions. Ions are implanted in the silicon wafer 

to alter the way silicon in these areas conduct electricity. Ions are propelled onto the surface of

 the wafer at very high velocities. An electrical field accelerates the ions to a speed of 

over 300,000 km/hour (roughly 185,000 mph)
  

  
After the ion implantation, the photo resist will be removed and the material that should 

have been doped (green) now has alien atoms implanted.
  

  
This transistor is close to being finished. Three holes have been etched into the insulation layer

 (magenta color) above the transistor. These three holes will be filled with copper, which will 

make up the connections to other transistors. 
  

  
The wafers are put into a copper sulphate solution at this stage. Copper ions are deposited 

onto the transistor through a process called electroplating. The copper ions travel from the positive

 terminal (anode) to the negative terminal (cathode) which is represented by the wafer.
  

  
The copper ions settle as a thin layer on the wafer surface.
  

  
 The excess material is polished off leaving a very thin layer of copper. 
  

  
Multiple metal layers are created to interconnects (think wires) in between the various 

transistors. How these connections have to be "wired" is determined by the architecture and

 design teams that develop the functionality of the respective processor (for example, Intel's Core i7 processor).

 While computer chips look extremely flat, they may actually have over 20 layers to form 

complex circuitry. If you look at a magnified view of a chip, you will see an intricate network of 

circuit lines and transistors that look like a futuristic, multi-layered highway system.
  

  
This fraction of a ready wafer is being put through a first functionality test. In this stage test

 patterns are fed into every single chip and the response from the chip monitored and

 compared to "the right answer."
  

  
After tests determine that the wafer has a good yield of functioning processor units, 

the wafer is cut into pieces (called dies).
  

  
The dies that responded with the right answer to the test pattern will be put forward for the 

next step (packaging). Bad dies are discarded. Several years ago, 

Intel made key chains out of bad CPU dies.
  

  
This is an individual die, which has been cut out in the previous step (slicing). 

The die shown here is a die of an Intel Core i7 processor.
  

  
The substrate, the die, and the heatspreader are put together to form a completed processor. 

The green substrate builds the electrical and mechanical interface for the processor to interact with

 the rest of the PC system. The silver heatspreader is a thermal interface where a cooling solution 

will be applied. This will keep the processor cool during operation.
  

  
A microprocessor is the most complex manufactured product on earth. In fact, it takes hundreds of 

steps and only the most important ones have been visualized in this picture story. 
  

  
During this final test the processors will be tested for their key characteristics 

(among the tested characteristics are power dissipation and maximum frequency).
  

  
Based on the test result of class testing processors with the same capabilities are put into 

the same transporting trays. This process is called "binning". Binning determines the maximum

 operating frequency of a processor, and batches are divided and sold according to

 stable specifications.
  

  
The manufactured and tested processors (again Intel Core i7 processor is shown here) either 

go to system manufacturers in trays or into retail stores in a box. Many thanks to Intel for 

supplying the text and photos in this picture story.

 


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[PF:172733] Zumanjaro - The World's Tallest Drop Ride

 

Zumanjaro - The World's Tallest Drop Ride

With a sheer drop of 415ft - higher than the Statue of Liberty - and travelling at speeds of 90mph, a new record-breaking ride will not be for the faint-hearted. A New Jersey company is planning to build the 41-story drop ride, making it the world's tallest.
 
 
Six Flags Great Adventure says Zumanjaro: Drop of Doom will hoist riders 415 feet in the air and drop them back to the ground at 90 mph.
 
The stomach-churning attraction will be attached to what is itself the world's tallest roller coaster, Kingda Ka in Jackson, New Jersey.
 
 
Sinking feeling: Promotional artwork shows what the world's tallest drop ride, dubbed Zumanjaro: Drop of Doom, will look like when completed at Six Flags Great Adventure in 2014
 
Breathtaking: Zumanjaro will drop brave riders 41 stories at 90mph. At the top, they'll be able to see the skyline of Philadelphia 52 miles away Zumanjaro's three towers, each 41 stories tall, will be nestled inside the green loop of the current ride.
 
 


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[PF:172732] The Beautiful Geirangerfjord, Norway




The Geirangerfjorden is a fjord in the Sunnmøre region of Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. It located entirely in Stranda Municipality. It is a 15-kilometre (9.3 MI) long branch off of the Sunnylvsfjorden, which is a branch off of the Storfjorden (Great Fjord). The small village of Geiranger is located at the end of the fjord where the Geirangelva river empties into it.
 
 
The fjord is one of Norway's most visited tourist sites. In 2005, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, jointly with the Nærøyfjorden, although this status is now threatened by the disputed plans to build power lines across the fjord. A car ferry, which doubles as a sightseeing trip, is operated by Fjord1 Nordvestlandske. It runs lengthwise along the fjord between the small towns of Geiranger and Hellesylt.Along the fjord's sides there lie a number of now-abandoned farms. Some restoration has been made by the Storfjordens venner association. The most commonly visited among these are Skageflå, Knivsflå, and Blomberg. Skageflå may also be reached on foot from Geiranger, while the others require a boat excursion. The fjord is also host to several impressive waterfalls such as the Seven Sisters waterfall.
 
 
This fjord is surrounded by the steepest and, one is almost tempted to say, the most preposterous mountains on the entire west coast. It is very narrow and has no habitable shore area, for the precipitous heights rise in sheer and rugged strata almost straight out of the water. Foaming waterfalls plunge into the fjord from jagged peaks. There are, however, a few mountain farms here, and of these one or two have such hazardous access, by paths that wind around steep precipices, and by bridges that are fixed to the mountain with iron bolts and rings, that they bear witness in a most striking way to the remarkable powers of invention which the challenges of nature have developed in man.
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 The Seven Sisters Waterfall making their way to the Geirangerfjord.
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 

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